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Style Periods & Dates
Furniture Periods Reference Material

~~~~~~

See Other Date Reference Material at our
Patents Page and our Artists Page!



Dates British Monarch British Period American Period Style
1558-1603 Elizabeth I Elizabethan Early Colonial Gothic
1603-1625 James I Jacobean Baroque
(c. 1620-1700)
1625-1649 Charles I Carolean
1649-1660 Commonwealth Cromwellian
1660-1685 Charles II Restoration
1685-1688 James II Restoration
1688-1694 William & Mary William & Mary William & Mary
1694-1702 William III William III Dutch Colonial Rococo
(c. 1695-1760)
1702-1714 Anne Queen Anne Queen Anne
1714-1727 George I Early Georgian
1727-1760 George II Georgian Chippendale
(c. 1750)
1760-1811 George III Georgian Early Federal
(c. 1790-1810)

American Directoire
(c. 1798-1804)

American Empire
(c. 1804-1815)

Neo-classical
(c. 1755-1805)

Empire
(c. 1799-1815)

1812-1820 George III Regency Later Federal
(c. 1810-1830)
Regency
(c. 1812-1830)
1820-1830 George IV Regency
1830-1837 William IV William IV Eclectic
(c. 1830-1880)

Arts & Crafts
(c. 1880-1900)

1837-1901 Victoria Victorian Victorian
1901-1910 Edward VII Edwardian Art Nouveau
(c. 1890-1920)
Art Nouveau
(c. 1890-1920)
1910-1936 George V   Art Deco
(c. 1920-1939)
Art Deco
(c. 1925-1939)
1936 Edward VIII  
1936-1952 George IV  
1952- Elizabeth II      

 





Style Period References
(list 1)




 

Style Period References
(list 2)

 




 

 

Furniture, Metal, and Pottery Marks Reference
As Published By:
Bruce Johnson
Author, Columnist and Director of the
National Arts & Crafts Conference
at The Grove Park Inn since 1988

 




 

 

Pictorial Examples
of American Furniture Design Periods

Please consider that style periods always overlap; dates are always approximate.


 

The Mulliner chest, made c1640's
(one of the earliest).


Home Sweet Home museum, East Hampton, New York.


1640-1700 - Jacobean or Pilgrim furniture


1690-1725 - William and Mary furniture


1715-1760 - Queen Ann furniture


1715-1760 - Queen Ann furniture - Massachusetts - Boston


Museum of Fine Arts, Boston


1715-1760 - Queen Ann furniture - New Hampshire - Portsmouth


Museum of Fine Arts, Boston


1730-1830 - Windsor furniture


1750-1800 - Germanic furniture


1750-1850 - Spanish colonial furniture


1755-1785 - Chippendale furniture


1755-1785 - Chippendale furniture - Pennsylvania - Philadelphia


Museum of Fine Arts, Boston


1755-1785 - Chippendale furniture - Massachusetts - Boston

 


Museum of Fine Arts, Boston


1755-1785 - Chippendale furniture - Rhode Island - Newport


Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York


1780-1820 - Federal furniture


1715-1760 - Federal furniture - Massachusetts - Salem


Museum of Fine Arts, Boston


1715-1760 - Federal furniture - New York - New York


Museum of Fine Arts, Boston


1715-1760 - Federal furniture - Rhode Island - Newport


Museum of Fine Arts, Boston


1800-1840 - Neoclassical furniture - New York - New York


Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York


1820-1910 - Shaker furniture


1815-1845 - Greek revival furniture - New York - New York


Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York


1815-1845 - Greek revival furniture - Massachusetts - Boston

 


Museum of Fine Arts, Boston


1840's - Gothic revival furniture


1845-1865 - Rococo revival furniture - New York - New York


Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York


1850's - Elizabethan revival furniture


1850 - 1900 - Chests - North-West coast


1860's - Renaissance revival furniture


1860's - Néo-grec furniture - New York - New York


Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York


1860-1875 Egyptian revival furniture


1865-1880 - Modern Gothic furniture - Pennsylvania - Philadelphia


Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York


1870- 1885 - Patent furniture - New York - New York


Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York


1870- 1885 - Eastlake furniture


1870-1900 - Horn furniture


1870-1900 - Anglo-Japanese furniture


1875-1890 Turkish taste furniture


1875-1890 - Aesthetic movement furniture


1876-1900 - Centennial furniture


1890-1915 - Prairie school furniture


1900-1915 - Arts & Crafts furniture - New York - Woodstock


Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York


1900-1930 - Adirondack furniture - New York - Westport


1900-1950 - Frank Lloyd Wright furniture


1920-1940 - Art Deco furniture


1925-1940 - American modern furniture


1929-1943 - Monterey furniture - California - Monterey


1950's - International style

 

 

 




 

The Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History

 
« Previous  |  Next »

Works of Art

Pair–case watch, 1682–83
Movement by Thomas Tompion (English, 1638–1713); inner case and dial by Nathaniel Delander (English, recorded 1668/69, died ca. 1691 or before 1705)
Outer case: leather with gold studs monogrammed RWR surmounted by a coronet (unidentified); Inner case and champlevé dial: gold, with blued steel hands; Movement: gilded brass, steel, partly blued, and silver; Diam. of back plate 1 7/16 in. (3.6 cm)
Gift of J. Pierpont Morgan, 1917 (17.190.1489ab)
 
« Previous  |  Next »

Timelines

Egypt, 8000–2000 B.C.

Egypt, 8000–2000 B.C.
Egypt, 8000–2000 B.C. Archaeologists have designated this long stretch of time the Paleolithic period because most tools are made from stone. Based on finds, we know that people inhabited both the Nile valley and its nearby deserts as environmental conditions permitted. The Lower Paleolithic period (ca. 300,000–90,000 B.C.) is the earliest occupation known in Egypt and these ancestors of humans often used a bifacial tool we call the Acheulian hand ax. More »
« Previous  |  Next »

Thematic Essays

Music in the Ancient Andes

Music in the Ancient Andes

Detailed accounts written by Spanish chroniclers of the sixteenth century emphasize the importance of music and dance in Inka celebrations and festivals. They describe musical instruments such as flutes and panpipes made of bone, reed, and fired clay, shell trumpets called pututos, ceramic whistles, ocarinas, trumpets, and drums, as well as rattles made with a variety of materials. These objects are sometimes portrayed as delicate instruments played with solemnity and virtuosity,... More »
 
 

 




 

Furniture Design History

Document link & all credit to:
www.OnlineDesignTeacher.com


Furniture design has been a part of the human experience since the beginning of history. Evidence of furniture survives from as far back as the Neolithic Period in the form of paintings, wall Murals discovered at Pompeii, in sculpture and examples have also been excavated in Egyptian Pyramids and found in tombs in Ghiordes (modern day Turkey). These notes will track the main advancements, developments, styles and materials in furniture design highlighting the identifying features of each period, the materials used and show images of some of the most significant pieces of furniture ever designed. The furniture design timeline below outlines just some of the different periods of furniture design and gives you a basic overview of the timeline of furniture design history.


Neolithic Period Furniture:

neolithic furniture

A excavated site dating from 3100-2500 BC in Skara Brae, Orkney uncovered a range of stone furniture. Due to a shortage of wood in Orkney, the people of Skara Brae were forced to build with stone, a readily available material that could be turned into items for use within the household. Each house was equipped with an extensive assortment of stone furniture, ranging from cupboards, dressers and beds to shelves and stone seats. The stone dresser was regarded as the most important as it symbolically faced the entrance in each house and is therefore the first item that was seen when entering a house.

Ancient Egyptian Furniture:

 
ancient egyptian furniture

The hyperarid climatic conditions of Egypt since the third millennium BC are perfect for the preservation of organic material. Thanks to these conditions Ancient Egyptian furniture has been excavated and various sites and includes 3rd millennium BC beds, discovered at Tarkhan, a 2550 BC gilded bed and chairs from the tomb of Queen Hetepheres, and boxes, beds and chairs from Thebes. There were two severe sides to the furniture excavated, the intricate gold gilded ornate furniture found in the tombs of the Pharaohs and the simple chairs, tables and baskets of the ordinary Egyptians.

Ancient Greek Furniture:

ancient greek furniture

Ancient Greek furniture design can be dated back to the 2nd millennium BC, including the famous klismos chair. The furniture designs are preserved not only by the examples still in existence, but by images of them depicted in Greek vases. In 1738 and 1748 excavations of Herculaneum and Pompeii revealed perfectly preserved Roman furniture. The ashes from the eruption at Mount Vesuvius preserved the furniture from 79 A.D. right up its excavation in the eighteenth century. Characteristic of this early furniture were highly influenced by the furniture of the ancient Egyptians with a stiff, rectangular, and unflattering shape. In the 4th and 5th centuries, once the Greeks developed their own style, furniture became less square and rigid and more curved and flowing.

Medieval Furniture:

middle ages furniture

The medieval period was a stark and somewhat crude time, and that is reflected in the furniture styles of the era. The furniture of the medieval period is very distinctive in style. Its most notable characteristics are ornate wood carvings on the border of chairs and canopy beds, garish structural layouts and colours that are basically grey, beige or black. Forms were mainly square or rectangular with very little in the way of curved lines or circular forms.

Renaissance Furniture:

Renaissance furniture

Along with the other arts, the Italian Renaissance of the fourteenth and fifteenth century marked a rebirth in furniture design, often inspired by the Greco-Roman tradition. Starting in the fifteenth century, a similar renaissance of culture, occurred in Northern Europe, particularly in the Netherlands, Belgium and Northern France. These designs were distinctly different from that of Medieval times and were characterized by opulent, often gilded designs that frequently incorporated a profusion of floral, vegetal and scrolling ornamentation. The aim of these pieces were often to showcase the skills of the craftsmen who made them.

Jacobean furniture:

jacobean furniture

After the Renaissance there was a gradual change to a less ornamented, quieter style of furniture. In Britain table legs, for example became straighter and narrower than were typical of earlier pieces and instead spiral turned legs became typical of this period. In general furniture profiles became lower and more rectangular. Later Jacobean furniture, during the era of Oliver Cromwell the Protector, was very stern, square, and frugal, a suitable style for a time of relative poverty. But with the return of the monarchy under Charles II, Carolean furniture once again became more ornate, characterized by intricate carved stretchers and colourful upholstery with tasseled trim.

By the end of the period, the influence of the British William and Mary style was beginning to show. Compared to the Jacobean and Carolean pieces this style of furniture was lighter and more elegant. Inverted, cup-turned legs, bun feet, and serpentine stretchers made this a very identifiable style.

Colonial furniture:

colonial furniture

Across the water in the United States, during the early Colonial period, most furniture arrived along with the first immigrants. They brought furniture pieces typical of the Jacobean and Carolean periods in Britain with them, and then later made their own furniture in a similar style. These pieces were generally sturdy and heavily carved, many with turned legs and bun feet. In the harsher environment of some of the Colonies these pieces were simpler representatives of their parent styles, befitting the more straightforward and utilitarian life of the settlers.

Other settlers also brought their influences with them to the colonies, most notably the Dutch and French in the Northeast, and the Spanish in the Southwest. Although recognisably different from the British inspired designs, the Dutch pieces are essentially in the same tradition. However the different climate and different wood available to Spanish colonists led to a distinctly different style known as Mission or Southwestern.

The earliest American-made piece of furniture is a chest made by Nicholas Disbrowe around 1660. Uncompromisingly rectangular, its distinctively carved frame-and-panel construction, although very reminiscent of earlier British Age of Oak pieces, is already recognizable as a distinct American style. Many other early Colonial era pieces, such as wainscot chairs and heavy joint-tables, are similarly in the Age of Oak tradition.

Rococo Furniture:

18th century furniture

In the eighteenth century, furniture design began to develop rapidly, although there were some styles that belonged primarily to one nation, such as Palladianism in Great Britain or Louis Quinze in French furniture, others, such as the Rococo and Neoclassicism were commonplace throughout Western Europe. In reality the term '18th-century furniture' therefore refers to a wide variety of styles including William and Mary, Queen Anne, Georgian, Chippendale, Hepplewhite, Sheraton, Adam, Regency, Federal, and the French periods of the several Louis, Directoire, and Empire.

While seperate, all 18th-century furniture, whether American, British, or French shared a similar style of construction that is distinct from the subsequent mass-produced furniture of the 19th century. Eighteenth-century furniture is commonly thought of as representing the golden age of the highly trained master cabinetmaker, trained in the craft of furniture design which manifests in highly finished, sophisticated designs.

Revival Furniture:

revival furniture

The 19th century was marked by the Industrial Revolution, which caused profound changes in society. With increasing working populations in cities, the rise of a new class of wealthy of furniture buyers, together with the arrival of mass-production and the demise of the individual craftsman-designer, the gradual progression of furniture styles that had developed through the previous centuries was replaced by a raft of imitation or revival styles. These concurrent revival styles, including Gothic revival, Neoclassicism and Rococo revival became easy and inexpensive to manufacture as technology developed during the industrial revolution.

With mass-production technology in place it was a simple matter to graft historically correct ornaments onto all sorts of furniture, thereby making possible for the creation of a continual stream of revival styles to meet the demands of the public. The result was a century of furniture whose common denominator was excessive ornamentation in the form of applied metal or wood carvings, inlays or stencils.

Art Nouveau Furniture:

art nouveau furniture

The name "Art Nouveau" is French for 'new art', and it emerged in the late 19th century in Paris. The style was said to be influenced strongly by the litographs of Czech artist Alphonse Mucha, whose flat imagery with strong curved lines was seen as a move away from the academic art of the time. Art Nouveau furniture used lines and curves as graphical ornamentation and hard woods and iron were commonly used to provide strong yet slim supporting structures to a furniture pieces.

Bauhaus Furniture:

bauhaus furniture

Because of the greater availability of a wider array of materials than ever before, and because of an ever-expanding awareness of historical and cross-cultural aesthetics, 20th-century furniture is perhaps more diverse, in terms of style, than all the centuries that preceded it. The first three-quarters of the twentieth century saw styles such as Art Deco, De Stijl, Bauhaus, Wiener Werkstatte, and Vienna all work to some degree within the Modernist idiom. The Bauhaus school was founded by Walter Gropius in Weimar in 1919. In spite of its name, and the fact that its founder was an architect, the Bauhaus was founded with the idea of creating a 'total' work of art in which all arts, including furniture would eventually be brought together. The furniture designs that emerged from the Bauhaus became some of the most influential designs in modern design.

Art Deco Furniture:

art deco furniture

The Art Deco movement began in Paris in the 1920s and it represented elegance, glamour, functionality and modernity. Art deco's linear symmetry was a distinct departure from the flowing asymmetrical organic curves of its predecessor style art nouveau. Art deco experienced a decline in popularity during the late 1930s and early 1940s when it began to be derided as presenting a false image of luxury, eventually the style was ended by the austerities of World War II.

Modern Furniture:

modern furniture


Born from the Bauhaus and Art Deco streamline styles came the post WWII Modern style using materials developed during the war including laminated plywood, plastics and fiberglass. In modern furniture the dark gilded, carved wood and richly patterned fabrics gave way to the glittering simplicity and geometry of polished metal. The forms of modern furniture sought newness, originality, technical innovation, and ultimately conveyed the present and the future, rather than what had gone before it as revival styles had done. This interest in new and innovative materials and methods produced a certain blending of the disciplines of technology and art. The use of new materials, such as steel in its many forms; molded plywood and plastics, were formative in the creation of these new designs. They were considered pioneering, even shocking at the time especially in contrast to what came before.

_______________________________________________

Our Sincere Thanks to:
www.OnlineDesignTeacher.com

"OnlineDesignTeacher is a website dedicated to design. We love design and believe that design, in all it's forms, is a vital part of our lives. This website aims to provide young designers and design students with the information and resources they need to learn about design theory and design practice or improve on the design skills and knowledge they already have."
 

 




 

MADE IN JAPAN MARKS & DATES

There can be some exceptions to the dates, but generally these dates are correct. There is also a lot of variation to the marks.  These are some of the more commonly seen examples.

MARK

YEARS USED

Nippon

1891 to 1921

Japan

1922 to 1941

Occupied Japan

1945 to 1952

Made In Japan

1953 to present

 

 




 

One Kings Lane - Furniture Period Resource Guide

One Kings Lane - Furniture Period Resource Guide
 

 




 

 

 Fashion Style Period Resources

 

 




 

Roman Numerals Converter
Type any number (1904) or
A Roman number (MCMIV)
and click 'Convert':


 






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